Prof. Dr. Tarek R. Rahmy
Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
Venomous snakes are the most dangerous inhabitants in the world. They inhabit deserts, fields and valleys. Venomous snakes of Egypt belong to family Atractaspididae (Atractaspis engaddensis), family Viperidae (Cerastes cerastes â€“ Cerastes vipera â€“ Pseudocerastes fieldi â€“ Echis carinatus â€“ Echis coloratus â€“ Echis pyramidum), family Elapidae (Naja haje â€“ Naja nigricollis â€“ Naja pallida â€“ Walterinnesia aegyptia) and family Colubridae (20 Species). Colubridae snakes have mild toxicity, while snakes from other families are highly toxic to man. Snake venom is produced by a pair of modified salivary gland that open to a pair of hollow fangs by narrow venom ducts. The venom is mainly made of proteins mostly enzymes besides non-protein components, which are divided into inorganic and organic constituents. All venoms cause severe changes in one or more body organs of the victim. Viperidae snakes are mainly hemotoxic, while Elapidae snakes are mainly neurotoxic.