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Harmful and Curative Bacterial Toxins
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Stinging and Venomous Insects
Venomous Spiders of Egypt
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Natural toxins
Stinging and Venomous Insects

Prepared by:

Prof. Hassan H. Fadl and Dr. Mahmoud S. Abdel Dayem

Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Some insects are among the venomous species that live around us. There are more than 1300 stinging and venomous insect species in Egypt. Bees, Yellow Jackets, Hornets, Wasps, Fire Ants, Velvet Ants and Blister Beetles are found near human habitats and present a threat to the people. The venom apparatus of the insect (the sting) is a very highly developed organ, which is a modified ovipositor that ejects venom instead of eggs. Thus, only female can have a stinger. The venom comes from two acid glands that secrete into the poison sac. During stinging, the contents of the alkaline gland are dumped directly into the poison canal where they mix with the acidic portion. In the honey bee the poison contains a protein and certain enzymes which cause the tissues of the victim to produce histamine.Many people fear insect stings, often believing themselves to be dangerously allergic. However, the vast majority who are stung will experience no more than a local reaction with redness, pain, swelling and some itching only at the sting site. In USA, over two million are allergic to stinging insects, 50 to 150 deaths occur each year from these stings and up to a million hospital visits result form insect stings.

Poster 1

Poster 2

On behalf of the Egyptian Society of Natural Toxins we invite all interested colleagues from different parts of the world to join us and enrich our activities seeking for improvement of performance and providing help to the humanity. We are concerned with the toxic living organisms as well as the danger and the benefits of their toxins.