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Harmful and Curative Bacterial Toxins
Toxic Fungi
Toxic Algae of Egypt
Poisonous Plants of Egypt
Stinging and Venomous Insects
Venomous Spiders of Egypt
Toxic Marine Organisms of Egypt
Scorpions of Egypt
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Natural toxins
Harmful and Curative Bacterial Toxins

Prepared by:

Dr. Hesham M. Abdulla & Sahar A. El-Shatory

Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Bacteria are group of minute (0.5 – 2µm across), unicellular prokaryotic organisms. They are widespread, almost everywhere in the environment, living either saprophytic on organic matter or parasitic on other organisms. Bacterial toxin, is a specific substance, often a metabolic product of the bacterial cell, which damages other organisms. Bacterial toxins are either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are heat labile proteins that are released as the bacteria grow. They are lethal in very small doses (µg/kg amounts); e.g. botulinum toxin. They are categorized, according to mechanism of action, into neurotoxins (nerve tissue), enterotoxins (internal mucosa) and cytotoxins (general tissue). Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides in the cell wall of some bacteria, which is released during bacterial lysis, and is toxic under many conditions. They are heat stable and toxic only at high doses (mg/kg amounts); causing general systematic effects, e.g. diarrhoea and inflammation.


On behalf of the Egyptian Society of Natural Toxins we invite all interested colleagues from different parts of the world to join us and enrich our activities seeking for improvement of performance and providing help to the humanity. We are concerned with the toxic living organisms as well as the danger and the benefits of their toxins.